Vocabulary Imbabura Quechua

The vocabulary contains 1297 meaning-word pairs ("entries") corresponding to core LWT meanings from the recipient language Imbabura Quechua. The corresponding text chapter was published in the book Loanwords in the World's Languages. The language page Imbabura Quechua contains a list of all loanwords arranged by donor languoid.

Word form LWT code Meaning Core list Borrowed status Source words

Field descriptions


The ages are characterized with reference to the landmarks of each period which include sociopolitical events and the publication of grammatical descriptions and dictionaries. The dates of the periods should be taken only as approximate references and a great degree of overlapping is expected. Each period represents a stage in the development of Imbabura Quechua (Quichua). The formative period represents the stage of Proto-Quechua, i.e. the common ancestor of all Quechua languages. From central Peru this language expanded gradually to the north and the south and became later to be used as a lingua franca by groups of distinct linguistic origin. This period, however, has not been included in the age field of the database. As Quechua was not autochthonous to Ecuador but was brought from the south, the Pre-Inca is the first period of Imbabura Quichua. The Pre-Inca period corresponds to the diffusion of the Chinchay variety of Quechua to the area of today’s Ecuador and the use thereof as a lingua franca in the region. The Inca period corresponds to the second entry of Quechua to the northern Andes through the Incas, who ruled the peoples of today’s Ecuador for nearly sixty years (1470-1532) until the death of Atahualpa by the Spaniards. In this period Quechua became established as an official language and used accordingly by the local elites and the Inca rulers. The period labeled as ‘Early Colonial’ extends from the conquest of the northern Andes by the Spaniards nearly to the publication of the first known written record of Ecuadorian Quichua. This period is characterized by the Quichuicization of the peoples of the northern Andes by missionaries, who used the Inca language for evangelization and other purposes. The Pre-Inca languages are known to be spoken until the end of this period along with Quichua. The Late Colonial period knows the appearance of the first written records in Ecuadorian Quichua, two of which are of religious nature (a pastoral letter and a religions instruction) and a wordlist. In this period the lexical and grammatical features of Ecuadorian Quichua as it is known today become established. This period knows the beginning of the hacienda system and the abandonment of Quichua as a means of instruction of native peoples in favor of Spanish. The Early Republic period extends throughout the nineteenth century and knows the publication of the first grammar of Quichua along other literary texts. The final period, Contemporary, corresponds to the twentieth century and extends to the present. It features an aggressive Hispanicization of the Quichua-speaking population as a result of labor migration to the cities and the urbanization of the countryside. This period knows the largest influence from the official language (Spanish) on Imbabura Quichua.


Catta Quellen, Xavier (1994). Gramática del Quichua Ecuatoriano. Quito: Editorial Abya Yala.
Centro de Investigaciones para la Educación Indígena (1982). Caimi Ñucanchic Shimiyuc-Panca. Quito: Ministerio de Educación & Pontificia Universidad Católica del Ecuador.
Cerrón-Palomino, Rodolfo (1987). Lingüística Quechua. (Biblioteca de la Tradición Andina 10.) Cusco: Centro de Estudios Rurales Andinos Bartolomé de las Casas.
Cole, Peter (1982). Imbabura Quechua. Amsterdam: North-Holland Publishing Company.
Cordero, Luis (1992 [1905]). Diccionario Quichua-Castellano y Castellano-Quichua. Quito: Corporación Editora Nacional.
Stark Louisa and Pieter Muysken (1977). Diccionario Español-Quichua Español. Publicaciones de los Museos del Banco Central del Ecuador. Guayaquil: Banco Central del Ecuador.
Torres Fernandez de Córdova, Glauco (2002). Lexicon Etnolectológico del Quichua Andino. 3 vols. Cuenca: Tumipampa.